A derivative of LSD (or LSD-25) where at its 2-position carbon atom a bromine atom is added. The first published report of synthesis of one form of 2-bromo-LSD is by Franz Troxler & Albert Hofmann in 1957, while they were working at the Sandoz laboratories in Basel, Switzerland. Albert Hofmann had previously synthesized LSD and knew its psychedelic effects. What is now known is that 2-bromo-LSD does not cause hallucinations like LSD does, although it appears to retain LSD’s other properties which are of potential therapeutic benefit in various neuropsychiatric disorders.
1st Generation Psychedelics
are those chemical molecules either as found in nature (e.g., in certain mushrooms, toad venom, etcetera) or semi-synthetic molecules made in the laboratory (e.g., LSD). These are identified by their “psychedelic experience” triggering action.
2nd Generation Psychedelics

are derivatives of classical (or 1st Generation) psychedelics, usually made by chemically modifying the parent psychedelic molecules, with the goal to improve its therapeutic profile – e.g., removing hallucinogenic effects while preserving the therapeutic properties, or improving its time in circulation in the body (called half-life).

3rd Generation Psychedelics
synthesized novel compounds aimed to improve upon 1st and 2nd generation psychedelic characteristics by enhancing clinical efficiencies in a particular disease and reducing side effects. Can produce a wide range of variations. Use of AI could help improve discovery process and identify optimal drug candidates.
Derived from the Latin and Greek word analogia. A compound having chemical structure & pharmacological properties similar to another compound but differs with respect to certain characteristics. Could be compared to a natural or synthetic compound.
the proportion of a drug or substance which enters the circulation and becomes available to its intended biological target when administered into the body. The extent of bioavailability depends on the route administered (e.g., oral vs. intravenous).
Classical Psychedelics
natural psychoactive substances that alter perception and mood while affecting numerous cognitive processes. Also called 1st generation psychedelics. Generally seen as safe and non-addictive. They effect many neuroreceptors in the brain and their hallucinogenic activity are believed to be mainly driven by agonism at the 5-HT2a neuroreceptor.
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
a US federal law enforcement agency that falls under the US Department of Justice. Tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution in the US. Is responsible for classifying drugs into five distinct categories (schedule) based on a drug’s i) acceptable medical use; and ii) drug’s abuse dependency potential.
Head Twitch Response (HTR)
is a hallucinogen behavioral tool in rodents that measures rapid side-to-side head rotation following administration of a treatment/substance. The HTR model is commonly used as a behavioral proxy in rodents for human hallucinogen effects and it can reliably distinguish between hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic compounds (e.g., 5-HT2A agonists).
Investigational New Drug (IND)
The United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Investigational New Drug program is the means by which an organization obtains permission to start human clinical trials in the US.
Macrodosing (Dosing)
the act of taking enough of a psychedelic drug to trigger a trip (or hallucination) where it results in drastic perceptual, cognitive, and emotional changes.
the act of taking small amounts of a psychedelic drug; usually about a 1/10 or 1/20 of a normal hallucinogenic dose of that drug. It is sometimes referred to sub-perceptual dose.
New Drug Application (NDA)
When the sponsor of a new drug (i.e., pharmaceutical company) believes that enough evidence on the drug’s safety and effectiveness has been obtained to meet The United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) requirements for marketing approval, the sponsor submits to the FDA a new drug application. The application must contain data from specific technical viewpoints for review, including chemistry, pharmacology, clinical, biopharmaceutics, and statistics. If the NDA is approved, the product may be marketed in the United States by that company (sponsor).
Neurological Disorder
diseases that affect the central and peripheral nervous systems. They include the brain, nerves found throughout the human body, and the spinal cord. Some examples are brain tumors, traumas, headaches, MS, epilepsy, dementia, and Alzheimer.
also known as brain malleability. It is the ability of the brain’s neural networks to change through growth and or reorganization. In essence, the brain is rewired to function in a different way than in the past. Generally, there are two types of brain plasticity: • Structural: brain’s ability to actually change its neuronal connections. • Functional: brain’s ability to alter and adapt the functional properties of neurons.
Neuro-psychiatric Disorder
debilitating mental disorders that encompass both a psychiatric and neurological effect. Occur when there is an altered mental and or behavioural pattern causing significant distress and impairment of personal functions. Some examples are major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and Schizophrenia.
a compound that does not trigger a hallucination at full dose (unlike microdosing). The goal of this approach is to develop easy-to-use medicinal solutions for neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Patients would not need treatment supervision as the drug could be self-administered at home.
Non-Scheduled Drug
drugs, substance, and chemicals that are used to make drugs that are not categorized by the DEA’s Schedule Policy.
comes from the Greek word that means to bend or shape the mind. Substances that can boost brain performance when it comes to learning and memory. Recent studies show that neuroplasticity from certain compounds including psychedelics, through increased neural connection, can lead to enhanced cognition.
a type of medicine that is developed to address the four key needs from sufferers – access, affordability, allowable, and applicable (flexible).
Pharmacokinetics (PK)
is derived from the Greek words pharmakon (drug) and kinetikos (movement). PK is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. It is commonly divided into four categories referred to as the “ADME” scheme: Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.
Psychological Disorder
referred to as a mental disorder or psychiatric disorder. General patterns of behavioral & psychological symptoms that affect multiple areas of our lives – cognition, behavior, and mood. Related to conditions like depression, anxiety, street, mode, sleep, trauma, PTSD, ADHD, Psychosis, Dementia, etc.
Scheduled Drugs
drugs, substance, and chemicals that are used to make drugs and classified by the DEA based on two key factors that determine a drug’s acceptability: i) the drug’s acceptable medical use; and ii) the drug’s abuse or dependency potential. There are five distinct categories – Schedule 1 being the strictest and Schedule 5 being the least strict.
Side Effects
also referred to as adverse effects. They are unwanted and undesirable effects of a drug or a treatment that cause a problem which does more than treat the target issue. The impact of this secondary side effect depends on the strength and length of the effect – minor, severe, life-threatening.

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